A dog should always have enough space indoors and outdoors to move around freely with enough space for running and playing which are very basic needs for a dog too.
When we walk our dogs, I recommend to use a longer leash anything between 2-4 meters for better communication. If we walk our dog on a short leash, we not only limit their freedom of movement, more importantly we take away their coping skills when meeting other dogs and people.
Dogs need movement of freedom to use their social skills in an appropriate way, to problem solve and communicate more clearly with us and the world around them. Freedom of movement gives our dogs also the opportunity to explore and take in the world in a a dogs way via its nose.
Dogs love to explore, stop, sniff, experience the environment with all their senses which provides them with mental stimulation and environmental enrichment.
Short leashes are only made for human control and can cause a lot of tension and reactivity in our canines. If you have ever watched a dog walking off leash, you will understand that the way, we have been taught to walk our dogs has nothing to do with the dogs natural way of walking and communicating with the environment around him.